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Always look before editing the discussion page. China - Japan Relations

Sino-Japanese relations refers to the relationship between the two countries, including the record of the history of Sino-Japanese relations, the former retreat, and to present and discuss the bilateral diplomatic relations. In the Han and Tang Dynasties, in many ways the political, economic, cultural, religious, and science and technology are Japan had a profound impact. But before the 1945 Japan after the end of the day occurred in a number of military conflicts and full-scale war, the formation of the political landscape in post-war Japan relations between the two countries and affect the future. Retreated to Taiwan after strained relations with many countries of the world, the two countries established diplomatic relations until 1972, while Japan and the Republic of China. When it comes, the Japanese Communist parties in 1972 as a dividing line, until 1972 known as the "Republic of China", in 1972 after referred to as "."

History [] 907 years ago []

According to 賹 W and archaeological research, period, together with the Asian mainland until 10,000 years ago, due to changes in the earth's crust, sea level rise, the Japanese archipelago and the mainland across the sea gradually. Since then, Japan entered, little dealings with the mainland. 221 BC, China's off the six countries, large numbers of immigrants moved to mainland Japan, and brought advanced farming civilization, prompting Japan to enter. Japan Yayoi formation of many small countries, according to the "Three Kingdoms & middot; Wei Zhi & middot; Shidori" records: "In 柲 wash minute fly V school  Lang 綅 u for the country town of the old hundred countries, there is an audience who Han. , this makes the translation through thirty countries. " According to "Han & middot; Zao Ren Liao Ao phenol d:" Jianwu Zhongyuan years (AD 57 years) Wonu country Bong tribute Asaga, people claiming to be a doctor, Guangwu thanks to printed ribbon. " This is the earliest record of Woguo tribute.

After the Chinese historical records many times things Japanese tribute to China: such as AD 107 Woguo Shuai for promotion tribute; 239 Queen difficult liter of rice and other deported messenger tribute; 266 years of Japanese emissary Queen tribute; 421 years to 478 years, 57 years, Wowang ,,,, has emissary tribute.

592 years, Japan's throne, carried out political reforms to strengthen the imperial core, laid the foundation of Chinese-style bureaucracy, and sent envoys and students to learn. The Japanese envoy emissary to visit the Sui Dynasty in 607 years credentials, due to the limitations of the Japanese island out, I do not know Sui powerful, competing send "date source book day caused no place emperor emperor 'credentials, causing anger , but not the anger sprinkling Japanese Emperor,Louis Vuitton iPhone 5 Cases, but also shows just out of the Japanese archipelago to the Sui Dynasty rival intent. 630 years, Japan dispatched the earliest. 645, ascended the throne, the implementation of repeal large Gentry monopoly system regime, the Tang bureaucracy learning, the establishment of a centralized state.

660 years, Don and coalition forces destroy, Baekje Baekje prince is crowned king, and to help Japan. 663, under the request of Baekje, Japan sent troops, was Tang and Silla forces defeated the White estuary, known as "." After more than ten years, Japan Kyushu in western and northern Honshu by building a large number of beacon towers, arranged heavily guarded. However, after the break the Tang Dynasty, because of the threat, and failed to send troops to the Japanese mainland. 676 years, the new alliance rupture Luotang toward Silla defeated Tang uniforms on the Korean Peninsula, but also lifted the threat to the Japanese mainland in the Tang Dynasty. Shortly thereafter, the Japanese began to willingly learn Chinese culture. 694 years, the Japanese built in the Tang Dynasty, the capital moved to imitate the capital. 701 years, Japan has developed a blueprint that will maximize changed since the institutionalization of the new achievements in reform, laying the foundation of Japan as a centralized rule the country.

717 years of faith into the Tang monk dispatched from school, by the gift of purple cassock. 735 years with more than 5,000 volumes Fang Xuan scriptures and statues back to Japan preaching. 753 December 20, the Tang Dynasty monk in Japan QianTangShi, and others, accompanied by Dir six times Shao Fan felt throughout the sun sup id = & quot; cite_ref-5 & quot; class = & quot; reference & quot; & gt ;, pioneered the Japanese Buddhism. And accompanied by Jian Zhen Fang Xuan together with the Tang study, however, Chao Heng boat in a sea storm disappeared, the famous Tang Dynasty poet thought he had died, sadly wrote Seven quatrains "." To 804 years, the Japanese monk went to school in the Tang Dynasty Chang'an Seiryuji, becoming the eighth ancestors. Two years later, air and sea to carry books and other books Tantric returned to Japan, Japan has pioneered Temple in Kaohsiung characteristics, have a significant impact on the development of Japanese Buddhism. 8th century Buddhist exchanges between China and Japan are very frequent, become a story in the history of Sino-Japanese relations.

894 years of civil strife due to the Tang Dynasty, the Japanese stopped imposition QianTangShi.

907 years -1840 years []

China, the official exchanges between the two countries is not much, but it has been the development and spread of Buddhism.

After the Yuan Dynasty unified China, want to see Shii naturalization, initially Yuan has no intention to use force, but Japan refused to give emissary tribute, in order to reflect the majesty of a world overlord, and launched, but encountered a typhoon and retreat. And lack of water war experience none successful. The two wars in Japan is called "Yuan Kou hit" or "Wen Yong, the Hongan service" in the war over, the Japanese coastal residents horses, Iki, Matsuura, five island archipelago also as hostile Japanese The Mongols brutally murdered. With the Yuan Dynasty Chinese chaos, the robber began to harass the Japanese Maritime North Korea and China, commonly known.

China early years, the rate of fleet dispatch more than 100,000 arrived in Japan, Chuan Ming emperor decree made tributary request, Japanese generals back to the book Yongle Emperor, promised emissary tribute to the Ming Dynasty, and a glimpse of the King of Japan, and presented pirates Dozens ,, end early pirates period. The late Ming Dynasty, the emperor corruption and incompetence, Haiphong breakdowns. Not entitled to the same period in Japan, due to the shogunate and fell into civil strife, civil strife among the wandering samurai and Ming coastal profiteers colluded intrusion in coastal China and Korea, this is. Pirates to commit frequent serious threat to the Ming Hai Phong, Jiajing, Ming Japanese government vigorously straighten coastal chaos, after Qi Jiguang and Yu Dayou of pacification, in the late Jiajing, pirates basically wipe out.

the late Ming Dynasty, unified Japan, and took over and began to expand overseas. 1592, Toyotomi Hideyoshi sent troops to 150,000, plot occupied Korea, peep Ming dynasty. Early in the war, eventually becoming habit due to the war in Korea, a collapse of a thousand miles, less than two months homeland basic decay, followed by the Ming army support for North Korea. When the war stopped playing because of the Japanese attempt to gain time to regroup, pretend Introduction. War lasted seven years, when playing stops. Known to history. Hideyoshi died in the final war, the Japanese killed more than half, panic withdrawal of the local end.

After the Japanese establishment, introduced in 1635, with foreign trade is only allowed in progress. When China, door policy between the two countries and Japan believes current situation of China "by the summer of Barbarians" have weakened the will of the deal between China and Japan. "There are government relations between China and Japan two centuries clear cut, in addition to maintaining trade demands on both parties, the two countries no longer have any traffic channel for the government and the private sector, which in the early Qing Dynasty Japan to become the only foreign relations exception. "

1840 年 -1911 years []

19 century ago, the Chinese Qing Dynasty and Japan are pursuing Edo. 1840, the British defeated the Qing Dynasty in, forced open the door; 1854 Japan was the United States, "Perry Fleet" forced open the door. Japan and China are also facing the occupation powers, carve destiny, but still practiced Edo conservative policies. 1868, progressives succeeded in overthrowing the Edo shogunate, began a top-down, fully Westernized modern reform movement, known as the "." Since then, the Qing Dynasty aspects still unaware rapid changes in Japan, the mainstream view is also satisfied on the "small country" blind contempt.

1871 In September 2009, the Qing Dynasty and Japan signed in Tianjin, "" and "", formally established a national peer relations, Sino-Japanese relations have now entered a new stage of modern times. 1872, Japan announced that Japan's territory, does not recognize China's suzerainty since 1372 onwards, announced the abolition of set, sealing Ryukyu 王尚泰 for Military Governors, officially merged Okinawa. 1874, Taiwan aborigines killed by Okinawans, Japan sent troops to invade Taiwan, known. In the United States, Britain and France envoy's "mediation" under the date of signing "": Qing admit Japan to send troops to "protect the people owed" the provisions of the withdrawal of Japanese troops in Taiwan, China and the granting of refugee silver pension Japanese built the road to buy house , a total of 500,000 two. April 4, 1879, Japan spent Ryukyu fan, changed completely annexed the Ryukyu.

1877 years to Heru Zhang Qing diplomatic mission headed by any minister to Japan, officially opened in Japan legation in September 1882.

1884 年 12 4, Korea and Japan to send envoy noble savages jointly planned and staged a coup and killed the old school officials announced and the Qing government to sever relations, is to "." Less than three days, the Korean conservatives rely Qing defeat the Japanese, returned to power.

1894 In the spring, the Korean peasant uprising broke out. June 2, the Japanese Cabinet decision to send troops to Korea. June 3, the North Korean government requested assistance Qing government repression. July 19, 1894, Minister of Japan in DPRK compel the DPRK government to repeal "", and expelled Qing exit. 23, 2009, the Japanese captured the Korean royal palace, to set up a puppet government headed. On the 25th, Bird announced the abolition of all providers make Daewongun approximately between China and the DPRK, and to authorize the expulsion of the Japanese army cantonment of the Qing. The same day, in the waters near Toshima troop transport and escort of China launched a surprise attack; the 29th, the Japanese Army 5th Division of the Qing hybrid 9th Brigade moved to the Ministry of attack by Asan, the Qing defeated Pyongyang. August 1, 1894, the Qing government declared war on Japan. On the same day, issued a declaration of war edict, China and Japan broke out.

1894 In September, the Shen destroyed six ships, killing more than a thousand people, martyrdom; Japanese combined fleet hit by five ships, killing six hundred people, the Japanese victory. Subsequently, due to pursuing a "boat insurance" policy and the impact of the Navy's military for their misappropriation celebrate birthday and other factors, holed up in Weihai Wei Northern Navy base, sit back and watch the Japanese captured Port Arthur; Army side, because Ye Zhichao, who secretly retreat, resulting in the Qing Yalu River defense of small wars that collapse, then a comprehensive defeat, the Japanese occupation Yuan peninsula. Since then, the Japanese army invaded and from mountain Zhong Diao u, lateral attack from inland Weihai Wei Qing and defeat, the Northern Fleet navy suicide. Eventually, Japan to achieve victory; once known as "Asia's first" Northern Navy ceased to exist, the Qing government and outside no way out except begging.

1895 年 3 月 30 the two sides signed the "Sino-Japanese Armistice Treaty," April 17, 1895, the Qing Li and Japanese Prime Minister in Japan, signed the "", the treaty states: China to withdraw troops from the Korean peninsula and to recognize the DPRK " autonomous and independent, "China is no longer the DPRK; China ceded its Bi-based milk  Che u and all affiliated islands, the Penghu Islands, and Dai generation Kang Ni Zhong Diao u to Japan; China compensation Japan two silly sand foot y.

1898 years, the Reform Movement fails, Kang Liang exile in Japan. The Qing government sent a prefect title track member and Yuanwai to "examine the business" in the name of Japan, conspired with each other alliances and extradite Kang and Liang home. But Liu Xun and celebrate the wide incompetence, gradually fizzled out.

Full Control

after the Qing Empress of the West deposed against her very unhappy. January 1900, the Empress released Dahir maintained to "help clear off the ocean," as the slogan of laissez-faire Hill Suites Mao Shu Na  Liu Shu  hot disrespect ⒀ majority of the Best Ao Tong Chi  sac sulfur wake Da spear May 11 Day, Secretary of the Japanese Embassy in Yongding Bin Sugiyama was killed just transferred to Beijing, and the open-sectional heart. On the same day, in Tianjin States consular organization two thousand eleven coalition reinforcements Beijing Legation, then they continue to send more troops to 50,000. June 17 coalition captured. June 20, the German Minister to China on behalf of the countries went to request protection, bowls ambushed and killed on his way. June 21, the Qing government in the name of Emperor Guangxu's no way to retreat, and to Britain, America, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia and the West, Belgium, the Netherlands, Austria declared war eleven countries simultaneously. July 14, the coalition occupation of Tianjin. The evening of August 16, after fierce fighting, the coalition has basically occupied Beijing city, the Empress and the royal family fled in panic to Xi'an. In recorded history in the United States, called the lifting of military action legation crisis, China is called.

1901 年 9 7, the Qing government was forced to sign "." Although China has been carved from the territory, but countries need to compensate 4.5 stupid enough sand y, known as "", tariffs and salt tax deducted from pay. Power Allied Forces invaded China, while Russia took the opportunity to occupy the Chinese Dai sup id = & quot; cite_ref-21 & quot; class = & quot; reference & quot; & gt;'s vast territory, Russia Yuan's concession also recognized. Russia's actions are a threat to American hopes and conflicts occur with the hope that the expansion in Japan and Manchuria 邧 forces broke out in February 1904 tragic.

1905 年 9 5 March, defeated in the Russo-Japanese War in Russia and Japan signed the "." According to the treaty, the Russians had occupied the southern half (latitude 50 degrees south) and all the nearby islands were ceded to Japan; transfer the lease rights Lushun and Dalian and nearby territorial waters to Japan; recognize North Korea as Japan's "protectorate . " After the signing of the treaty, Japan and Russia forced the Qing government to be recognized immediately. December 22, 1905, the Qing government signed with Japan "," date of acceptance by Russia, "Portsmouth Peace Treaty" all the provisions, but also with some additional equity to Japan.

1911 years during the Revolution, both support the Revolutionary Party of Japan also supports the Qing Dynasty, attempting to split China. Oct. 28 Wuchang Uprising broke out after the Japanese Embassy to the Foreign Minister, Minister of dense power: "Imperial Government the urgent need to act decisively determined ...... take this golden opportunity, should urgently establish two independent states in central and southern China, leaving Manchu court Sung in North ...... maintain Manchu court in the north corner, while making long-term confrontation with the South Han Chinese,Chanel cases for sale, is advantageous in the case of the best policy for the Empire. "

1911 -1949 [] twenty-one and five four sports []

1914 年 8 23, shortly after the outbreak of the First World War, Japan declared war on Germany, yet targeting the Chinese. August 27, the Japanese blockade of China; September 2 Japanese from the mountains are Wei Shu March 21 attacks; October 7 attack, [7 November] capture, control line and near the mineral. The Government has twice proposed to the Japanese government to withdraw Japanese troops from China's request. January 18, 1915, the Japanese minister to Yuan Shikai request and demanded absolute secrecy. However, the gradual disclosure of the terms of the contents of Yuan Shikai secretly hoped to get American support, forcing the Japanese to make concessions in China also appear anti-Japan sentiment; Japan places the threat of force to China. May 7, the Japanese government issued an ultimatum to the Yuan government, insisting on the 9th reply. Yuan Shikai government eventually accepted twenty-one I to IV requirements in at 11:00 p.m. on May 9, known as the "five nine national humiliation." January 1919, victory in a battle group held, as will China and will inherit privileges from Japan, causing Chinese protests, known as the "", the Chinese delegation and will put forward two proposals to: Cancel Empire privilege doctrine in China; cancel Japan forced China to recognize the "21" to recover mountain 柕 臋 whispering Lan Gui  vice ring 駴 Q China has not signed the peace treaty. 1921 at the peace conference was held, in 1922 the two countries signed two mid-day "Sino-Japanese wild mountain Sam K Q attached Treaty" in Washington.

Jinan Massacre []

1928 年 5 May 3, crossing mountain tree knot r, Jinan occurred in conflict with the Japanese, and killed a number of Japanese nationals. Battlefield Military Chief Councilor and Foreign Affairs Office director and the accompanying 17 people were killed in the Japanese negotiations Corruption, known as "." After that, the Japanese continue to send more troops and occupied the whole territory of Jinan, the massacre of civilians, forced to detour north Expedition.

Huanggutun events []

1928 年 6 3, was defeated warlords Expedition train back from Beijing. Before, the Japanese government announced Envoy asked Zhang Ju ⅲ Tong Wan Bao Dai Fu ^. June 4 in the morning, Chang Tso-lin was riding the train passing over the road south of Shenyang and Beijing Feng Road intersection when the road "three-hole Bridge", was seriously wounded in Japan where he died embedded explosives, known as "."

Sino-Japanese tariff agreement []

1930 年 5 6, "" In Nanjing signature. Period of three years, Japan recognizes China tariff autonomy, but provides for 110 kinds of imported Japanese goods temporarily increase taxes. 1934 expiration of the National Government in the "Sino-Japanese tariff agreement" on the occasion, once again raising import tax. Chinese import tariffs of 4 percent from 1929's 10 percent increase in 1930, 1934 and amounted to 25%.

Mukden Incident []

1931 年 9 18, the Japanese attack the Chinese 柋 by deflated v army garrison pursued by China and the "non-resistance policy", the Japanese soon occupied bear grudge .  trafficking Q '. " March 1, 1932, before the Qing emperor became a pseudo-"" power, become Japan's puppet government. March 1, 1934, Pu Yi formally ascended the throne, reign "."

1932 年 1 月 28 日 23 when 30 minutes, the Japanese marines occupied the west line of 2,300 people, the resistance encountered by the firm and the Chinese garrison command, "" outbreak. Because Guojun stubborn resistance to expand the war, the Japanese four easy to coach, several thousand more troops to seven people, and the sea air, the chariot assist in the fight. Chiang comeback after the incident occurred main reason the military, sent by the command of the Fifth Army on February 16 to join battle in Jiangwan area to resist the Japanese attack on March 2. Because the Japanese landing, formation Passing situation, Guojun across the board retreat. March 3, the Japanese occupation, after the announcement of the armistice. May 5, 1932, the ROC government and the Japanese government in Britain, the United States, France and other countries to mediate signed the "Songhu Armistice Agreement." Japanese return to pre-war zone, the military is now temporarily stay resident, war zone is classified as non-armed region.

1936 年 12 12, when he was deputy commander of Zhang Xueliang northwest bandits when the National Revolutionary Army and commander of the Seventeenth Road in Xi'an mutiny, forcing Jiang "to stop anti-Communist, reorganize the government sent troops to the anti-Japanese." . Stop Suppressing unanimously against Japan was forced to accept the idea, contributed, known as "."

Sino-Japanese War []

1937 年 7 月 7th, a full-blown. By the end of July 1937, the Japanese captured North China. August 13, 1937 "" outbreak, the military organization to fight the Japanese. September 1937, started. September 25, 1937, the Communist Party of China led by generals commanding in Pingxingguan ambush, annihilate the Japanese Fifth Division twenty first trip baggage guard forces, more than 1,000 people, known as the "." November 8, 1937 in Taiyuan fall. November 12, 1937 Shanghai fall. November 20, 1937, the national government officially moved the capital to Chongqing. December 13, 1937 the fall of Nanjing. Surrender of the Japanese on the Chinese military and civilian massacres carried out six weeks, known as: "."

1938 年 2 月 started, the fifth theater commander commanding six hundred thousand military victory in the war to get Guojun first win. May 19, 1938 the Japanese occupation of Xuzhou. June 9, 1938, Chairman of the National Military Command in temporarily blocking the Japanese south. June 12, 1938. October 25, 1938 to 27, Hankou, Wuchang, Hanyang have subsided.

1939 年 9 14, begins. After the war into a stalemate.

1940 In March 2009, in order to "peaceful anti-communist founding" for the call, "but also are" in Nanjing, set up the "ROC National Government." August 1940-December, the CCP launched the Eighth Route Army. In the north of the Japanese lines of communication to harass, but also exposed the Eighth Route Army's military strength. September 7, 1940, "" begins. December 24, 1941, "" outbreak wiped out the Japanese military command of 50,000 people, to curb the Japanese attack.

1941 年 12 7 December, the Japanese attack on the United States, the outbreak of Japan's strategic focus turned to the United States from China. December 9, the United States formally declared war on Japan.

1945 年 8 15, Japan Broadcasting published by "", announced its unconditional surrender. October 25, 1945, in accordance with and as well as far-Shu Yu ^ Allied Command command, Chiang Kai-shek to the Chinese theater commander to surrender.

1949 年 至 1972 2005 []

inception, caught in diplomatic isolation. September 8, 1951, the United States and Japan in order to blockade the Chinese mainland from the strategy meeting in Japan and by (Republic of China and the People's Republic of China garnered been invited to participate), the United States and Japan signed at the same time "," military alliance. 10 days later, the State Council issued a statement Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs pointed out that peace treaty with Japan was "illegal", "invalid." April 28, 1952, Japan and the Republic of China signed the "", the establishment of formal diplomatic relations. After 7 days, the Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Zhou Enlai issued a statement, expressed strong opposition to this contract.

1956 年 6 27, the Prime Minister of People's Republic of China Zhou Enlai announced the addition of 45 people, the release of all 1,017 Japanese war criminals. However, the then Japanese Prime Minister has access to the ROC in June 2, 1957, expressed support for the ROC government recovering the mainland. May 2, 1958, incident occurred insult, Sino-Japanese trade and therefore interrupted. July 7, People's Republic of China put forward the Sino-Japanese relations, "the three principles of politics": the Japanese government to stop anti-Chinese words and deeds; stop making ""; not obstruct the normalization of bilateral relations. March 12, 1959, secretary of the long speech in Beijing, pointed out, "is the common enemy of the people of Japan and China", causing the Japanese media criticism. October 12 next year Asanuma rice Jiro was killed teenager.

Sino-Japanese relations in the harsh time, the two sides have developed a non-governmental trade, and has four non-governmental trade agreements signed in the 1950s. August 27, 1960, Premier Zhou Enlai met with People's Republic of China trade sector in Japan, proposed "three principles of trade with Japan": government agreements; civil contract; individual attention. November 1962, China and Japan signed the "Sino-Japanese long-term comprehensive trade memorandum." After set up, "the memorandum and Trade Office," engaged in trading of commodities. Japanese left-wing activists repeatedly visit People's Republic of China; People's Republic of China also regularly send "cultural organizations" engaged in activities to Japan. After the People's Republic of China and Japan's trade slightly increased, consequent Japanese politicians actively engaged in speculative activities and People's Republic of China "to establish diplomatic relations" of. Because Zhou Enlai hostile Japanese Sato cabinet, "the establishment of diplomatic" negotiations without delay concrete results. Folk Cultural Revolution affected the trade between the two countries.

1971 年 10 2 April, People's Republic of China put forward "in Japan resumed diplomatic relations three principles": People's Republic of China is the sole legal government representing China; Taiwan is an inalienable part of the People's Republic of China; "San Francisco Peace Treaty" is illegal, invalid and must be abolished. ROC government immediately issued a statement to be severely condemned, stated on behalf of China is the sole legitimate government. 1972 People's Republic of China through "" improved. February 21, 1972, U.S. President's visit to China, began to move toward the normalization of Sino-US relations. Japan also follow the United States began the normalization of Sino-Japanese relations effort.

1972 In July 2009, his successor, Zhou Enlai, both sides are using the opportunity to take the initiative to publish declaration as soon as possible "to establish diplomatic relations." September 25, Tanaka visit People's Republic of China. September 27, Tanaka met with the party chairman. September 29, People's Republic of China and the Japanese government issued a "", announced the establishment of formal diplomatic relations. People's Republic of China and Japan recognize each other in the "diplomatic." ROC government also announced that diplomatic relations with Japan, suspend formal diplomatic relations.

1973-present []

The following record only the development of relations between Japan and the People's Republic of China Government:

Since the People's Republic of China and Japan established diplomatic relations, led to the positive development of bilateral official relations, bilateral cooperation in many aspects of economy, culture, science and technology. August 12, 1978, People's Republic of China and Japan signed "." October 22, Vice Premier of the State Council, People's Republic of China to visit Japan, the 23rd, Peace and Friendship Treaty with Japan to exchange instruments of ratification. However, in Deng Xiaoping's visit to Japan recently held a regular "Autumn Festival", the official of the 14 Class A war criminals of souls into the shrine. Events like this in the future of Sino-Japanese relations can be seen from time to time, but before, the rapid development of Sino-Japanese relations is in the right direction.

1979 年 12 5 March, the Japanese Prime Minister visit to People's Republic of China, is committed to providing the first batch of government loans. Since then Japan has provided China with the four batches of tens of thousands of the Zhao J models of the early Chinese played an important role in economic development. In June 1982, when the Japanese approval of textbooks, modify war of aggression launched by Japan during World War II history, causing People's Republic of China government discontent and protest. September 26, Japanese Prime Minister visit to People's Republic of China, said that Japan-China relations have entered a mature period, on the textbook issue, the Japanese government will be resolved in accordance with the spirit of the "Sino-Japanese Joint Statement," the. January 7, 1989, Japanese Emperor Hirohito died. February 24, People's Republic of China Minister of Foreign Affairs to attend the special envoy of President Emperor Hirohito's funeral. April 12, 1989, Premier of the State Council People's Republic of China to visit Japan in the day when it comes to the unfortunate history of Japan at the time of the meeting, for the first time with "regrets" expressed regret that way.

1989 years after the []

after the implementation of sanctions against Japan, including: Freeze the third installment of government loans, stop both high-level exchanges. Until July 11, 1990, Japanese Prime Minister announced the resumption of the Chinese government loans. August 10, 1991, Japanese Prime Minister Toshiki Kaifu visited Beijing took the lead in the Western developed countries, to improve the then China diplomatically isolated situation.

1992 年 4 6, the CPC Central Committee General Secretary's visit to Japan, and the People's Republic of China invited to visit Japan and Queens. October 23, Japanese Emperor Akihito and Empress visit to China, which is the history of the Japanese emperor's first visit to China.

1995 年 5 2 April, the Japanese Prime Minister's visit to China, the first visit and. August 15, Japanese Prime Minister Murayama on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the postwar Japanese government issued a statement on behalf of the historical issues, clearly expressed its willingness to face up to history, recognizing aggression, expressed deep remorse and apology. This would later be called "." But after the "Murayama speech," Sino-Japanese relations did not like Murayama speech desired direction. August 29, 1995, the Japanese government protest Chinese mainland, China's government announced a freeze on loan assistance.

since July 1996, four consecutive board members, causing the Chinese mainland, Hong Kong and other places folk. April 21, 1998, Deputy People's Republic of China to visit Japan, emphasizing the development of Sino-Japanese relations to "draw lessons from history and facing the future." The visit did not change the Sino-Japanese relations gradual deterioration of the situation.

1998 年 11 25, the President of People's Republic of China to visit Japan, this is the first visit to Japan, the second day after the visit of Jiang Zemin also served. The two sides issued a "", announced the establishment of the two countries' commitment to peace and development of friendly and cooperative partnership. " During his visit to Japan, the People's Republic of China as the government did not expect written Declaration of aggression against China and Japan on a formal apology to the Chinese aggression, and a month ago to apologize in stark contrast to Japan. Some commentators believe that the visit by the friendly Sino-Japanese relations turned hostile turning point; but also commented that Dr. politics had mentioned in his book, Japan had made an apology to Jiang Zemin met during the year, but the condition is China After the matter can no longer bother to Japan, so China refused to accept Japan's apology last reason is to avoid "no longer with" Japan has no reason to reflect on the history of "criticism and opposition to Japan into Japan."

2000 years after the []

2001 年 8 14, the Chinese people on the stone base 柧 ┚ Chi  dog turtle T crotch before spray paint to write "damn" word, to protest Japan's prime minister visited the Yasukuni Shrine in the previous day. This does not affect the October Koizumi's visit to Beijing and visited the Marco Polo Bridge in southwest Beijing Chinese People's Anti-Japanese War Memorial Hall and on the Japanese invasion of China expressed remorse and apology. But Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi as 6 years, the Yasukuni Shrine six times, so that Sino-Japanese relations into the trough.

2002 年 5 8, according to the Japanese side said: There are five celebrities attempted to enter the Japanese consulate in Shenyang, was forcibly taken away. Japan accused the government of People's Republic of China belongs to Japanese territory trespassing arrests embassy district, a violation of Japan. But China believes that the event did not enter the consulate area originating location, thus no direct relationship with Japan, and the Government of People's Republic of China is precisely the move proactively to maintain the normal order of the Japanese consulate.

2003 年 9 18, from Osaka, Japan tours construction companies in the Zhuhai International Conference Center Hotel wantonly "prostitution" and publicly said, "is to play Miss China." Hundreds of Chinese prostitutes from Zhuhai, Shenzhen, nightclubs and even rushed over and become the object of Japan off the tiles, known as the "."

2004 In November 2009, belongs to the ship from Japan across the southern waters, returned homeport. The Japanese government accused the Chinese military in violation of international law, broke into Japanese territorial waters secret and send go expelled. The Chinese government claimed that the submarine has been traveling the high seas waters.

2005 年 4 9 March, due to Japan to seek "a permanent" and repeated history textbook issue, caused widespread outrage and the Chinese people, the outbreak of large-scale boycott protests marches and rallies, events from other places quickly spread throughout the country ten several cities. Japan believes in the peaceful rally Shangju banned by the authorities, such large-scale demonstrations without proper governmental acquiescence impossible. Accusing China secretly instigated. China to be denied this, and that this is the inevitable result of the Japanese government is purely a series of moves that hurt the Chinese people's feelings triggered by spontaneous activity purely private conduct; For the Japanese side made an apology and compensation requirements, China has also ignored and respond Finally, Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi publicly apologize.

August 15, 2006, Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi to take advantage of the occasion, the outgoing, the anniversary of Japan's surrender at the Yasukuni Shrine again aroused strong dissatisfaction of the Chinese government. But since Koizumi to step down, the two leaders to actively improve bilateral relations.

December 2007 Japan's new prime minister's visit to Beijing, personally met with the President of People's Republic of China. After more than one month in China by Japanese police find frozen handmade dumplings containing insecticide "" ingredients, toxic dumplings manufactured by Hebei Province, China, the Japanese police are also investigating accusations of attempted murder. March 2010, after two years of investigation, the Chinese public security authorities arrested a suspect poisoning Lvyue Ting, when the person committing crimes in Shijiazhuang, Hebei Tian Yang Food Plant when temporary workers, because of dissatisfaction with wages and individual workers poisoned in dumplings.

April 26, 2008, "Chinese dumpling poisoning incident" has not yet subsided, and when the torch relay in Japan molecules trying to undermine the torch relay, beating Chinese students events. While the friction between the two countries, President People's Republic of China or in Japan in May 2008 on a visit to five days, the two sides signed a bilateral treaty fourth important '. " Prior to this visit with the Japanese Prime Minister, respectively, by the media as Spring tours and warm spring trip.

October 25, 2008, to participate in the seventh before returning to the Japanese Prime Minister, accepted the Chinese CCTV "high access" section of the interview, expressed their willingness to "Japan's colonial rule and aggression expressed deep remorse and heartfelt apology "might not agree.

2012 年 10 17, Shinzo Abe, Japan's Liberal Democratic Party president, visited the Yasukuni Shrine, once so Sino-Japanese relations deteriorated. After coming to power again, led by the Liberal Democratic Party of its proposed constitutional amendment, which advocated the abolition of negative to allow the SDF to participate in overseas peacekeeping and counter-terrorism operations, the Japanese as a normal. Constitutional cause China uneasy relations deteriorated again.

2013 年 12 26, Shinzo Abe after his first visit to the Yasukuni Shrine, leading to rapid deterioration of Sino-Japanese relations.

Economy []

economic and trade exchanges between China and Japan long before the "normalization of relations" had already begun. After 1972 the two sides, "the restoration of full diplomatic relations", bilateral economic and trade relations have also changed from the previous "half the people half-official" to "government and private sectors." 1972 China and Japan's trade volume was 11 Dou floods  blame ń will promontory 973 years, the trade volume rose to 20.1 Dou floods T972 to 1977 this six-year period, total trade reached 167.1 Dou flood 952 years to 20 years in 1971 to 1.9 times the total trade. 1978, signed the "Sino-Japanese Peace and Friendship Treaty", making China and Japan's trade has entered a new period of development. 1978 China and Japan trade is waterlogged 980 rose 50.8 Dou Dou floods 983 to 84 years to reach 100 Dou floods 987 annual trade developed rapidly to 156.5 Dou year flood 978 to 10 years in 1987 increased by 3 times the volume of trade.

According to statistics, in 2000 China and Japan amounted to 831.66 Dou floods 002 trade began, the Japanese turned to the Chinese trade surplus. 11 years before 2003, Japan has been China's largest trading partner, but this status has been replaced and last year. In recent years, in the case of a serious slump in the Japanese economy, the profits of many large enterprises in China is mainly derived from investment or trade with China. According to Japanese trade statistics, China (including and) in 2004 has replaced the United States as Japan's largest trading partner.

2005 years of Japanese trade volume reached 1893 Dou floods H felt invaded Ling  mortar wicker Q Yi Mu Chen  partners, China is Japan's largest trading partner. China's dependence on the decline in the Japanese trade and economic relations between Japan has shown signs of cooling trend, "cold politics" is leading to "the cold." From the analysis of the bilateral level, the development of bilateral economic and trade relations is relatively slow; sharp reduction in Japan's economic assistance; twin trade friction in recent years, a continuous, collaborative process has lagged far behind. From the Chinese point of view of Japan as its major trading partners, ranking on the decline, the importance of reducing trade heat in cooling; From the Japanese perspective, the continued rapid growth of bilateral trade, the Japan External Trade of China (including Hong Kong and Macau) the amount has exceeded the size of the United States, indicates that the current bilateral trade is still warming up. May be "less heating and cooling of many" in the future, the overall trend is cooling.

2004年日本對中投資4900內赵袊蔀槿毡镜谌髮ν馔顿Y目的地,和居第二位的美國僅相差100內赵T趦蓢P係艱難的2005年,日本對中國投資達到新高,較2004年上漲了19.8%達到65.3兠涝既毡緦ν馔顿Y總額的15%。日本對中國投資主要涉及電子、纖維、製造及配套企業、食品加工和金融、物流、、諮詢、流通、飲食、美髮等服務業等領域。 2005年下半年日資汽車在中國轎車市場佔有率已接近30%。至2005年末,在中國日本企業達3.5萬家。

2000年-2012年日本對中國投資金額

投資年度投資額(兠涝 /td>200029.2200143.5200241.9200350.5200454.5200565.3200670.1200771200862.5200961.1201057.52011108.32012112.1科技、文化[]

在古代,日本處在一個相對封閉的地理環境中。日本在第三次國書中稱「柼旎示窗孜骰实邸 sup id="cite_ref-48" class="reference">也間接反映了日本當時對地理環境的認識。這使得中原文明成為日本文化輸入的第一選擇。在公元8世紀以前,日本沒有自己的文字,這之前的日本歷史除了考古發現以外,更主要的是通過中國的史書得以保存和研究。早在中國的就有了日本來中國的記載,最早是從間接傳入日本。到了中國的唐朝,日本派遣了大批的留學生和留學僧,全面學習了的典章制度、律法、建築、宗教、醫學、音樂、棋藝、書法、繪畫、工藝、武術、服飾、飲食等等等等,、、以及無不脫胎於中國文化,甚至就是中國唐朝首都的一個縮影。也是在這個時期,日本在的基礎上創造了自己的文字,才有了自己的歷史記載。

公元894年,由於唐帝國的衰落,日本停止派遣遣唐使。此後,中國向日本的文化輸入陷入低谷,日本也走上了一條文化本土化的道路,形成了自己的文化特色。與日本鉅細無遺的了解中國不同,中國直到時對日本的印象還是《》、《》中的寥寥幾筆。在《日本論》開篇曾說道:「中國這個題目,日本人也不曉得放在解剖台上,解剖了幾千百次,裝在試驗管里化驗了幾千百次。」到了19世紀中葉,日本的思想家提出了著名的「」論,對日本近現代的發展產生了深遠影響。從開始,日本迅速強大起來,並強烈影響著各國近現代化進程,中國也不例外。歷史戲劇性的逆轉,中國開始向日本派遣大批留學生,學習日本的經驗。從1898年至1911年間,至少有2.5萬名中國學生赴日本留學。然而,中國向日本的學習比之於日本就顯得過於粗略和傲慢了。有證據表明,「中國留日學生的總體水平低得可憐」。

1949年以後,中國和日本開展了非常有限的民間交往。中國與日本民間科技交流始於六十年代初期,當時交流的主要形式是主辦中日科技座談,日本工業界技術人員來到中國,專題介紹日本新的技術,中日雙方技術人員進行討論。該項交流規模逐年擴大,成為當時中國技術人員了解世界科技發展情況的重要渠道之一,一直延續到七十年代中期。

1972年「邦交正常化」以後,中國和日本的科技和文化交流發展很快。1978年日本政府同進行合作的執行機構日本國際協力事業團(JICA)開始同中國建立聯繫。1979年12月6日中國和日本政府簽署了《中日文化交流協定》;1980年5月20日,中國和日本簽訂了《中日科學技術合作協定》。目前,中日民間科技、文化交流亦發展到相當規模。近年來日本的流行文化對中國也產生了很大影響。如日本的電影、動畫片、漫畫、電子遊戲等對中國幾代人都產生了很大影響。

雙方敏感問題[]中日領土和能源爭端[]

是一片無人島嶼,在日本被稱為「尖閣諸島」,位於柡D喜浚嗵臣s100海里,距日本約225海里。目前,中方和日本都宣稱對該群島擁有主權。

柡S蜌馓飭栴}是指中華人民共和國和日本國關於柡5膭澖绾陀蜌赓Y源開發的分歧和爭論。

沖鳥礁,日本稱為沖之鳥島,是日本南部太平洋海域的一處日屬礁石。中華人民共和國認為其是岩礁;日本則認為是島嶼。如果承認沖鳥礁是島嶼的話,日本將得到其周邊43萬平方公里的專屬經濟區,並獲得區內的一切自然資源。

中日戰爭的歷史遺留問題[]

如何看待日本在佔領中國的歷史,一直是中日關係的焦點。在中日聯合聲明和中日和平友好條約中已明確表述,構成了中日關係的政治基礎。中日邦交正常化以來,雙方曾經歷一段蜜月期,在中國官方宣傳中,「中日兩國世代友好」是基調。 80年代末,日本國內經濟不景氣引發民間右翼排外思潮不斷興起,使得很多日本人對中國人的反感甚至仇視不斷加深,勢力藉此否定、美化侵略歷史的活動時有發生。而以來,中國政府的國際形象大損,被日本民眾普遍認為是沒有言論自由、肅清異議人士、提倡仇日思想和狂熱。同時,中國民眾的民族主義思潮也不斷興起,加之日本在各個敏感問題上所採取的態度,使自發的反日和仇日宣傳不斷增多,網路上時常流傳各種或真或假的「日本辱華事件」,每每激化中國民眾對日本人的反感,出現了大量「抵制日貨」的呼聲。中國政府對於反日宣傳,一般採取低調放任的態度。但對於民間反日組織的活動,亦採取高壓控制方法。 2005年4月,上海大規模反日示威遊行,普遍認為有政府背景。但事件發生之後,安全部門秘密拘捕了一批民間反日人士。

問題在這裡指日本如何看待台灣的政治地位的問題,也是中華人民共和國與日本國建交的前提和基礎。在台灣問題上,日本基本上追隨了美國的政策。

日本歷史教科書問題是指圍繞日本國內歷史教科書的編寫、修訂而衍生的杹啞南亞國家對日本國內怎樣看待日本在亞洲及太平洋地區的戰爭歷史的爭議。

靖國神社供奉著自明治維新以來為日本戰死的軍人及軍屬。由於靖國神社同時供奉著14名二戰,被杹喐鲊暈榈南筢缍鴤涫軤幾h。

(日語:南京虐殺事件)是日本侵華戰爭初期日本軍隊在首都犯下的大規模屠殺、強姦以及縱火、搶劫等戰爭罪行與反人類罪行。日軍暴行的高潮從1937年12月13日攻佔南京開始持續了6周,直到1938年2月南京的秩序才開始好轉。據第二次世界大戰結束後和的有關判決和調查,在大屠殺中有20-30萬以上中國平民和戰俘被日軍殺害,約2萬中國婦女遭日軍姦淫,南京城的三分之一被日軍縱火燒毀。

在中國,自1947年南京軍事法庭審判以來,普遍認為約有30萬人在大屠殺中遇難。在日本,日本政府承認「發生過殺害非戰鬥人員和掠奪等行為」,但對遇難人數則曖昧不清。日本學界對遇難人數的估計有20萬人、4萬人、2萬人等幾種,也有認為南京大屠殺不存在的「否認派」。 「否認派」得到部分日本政商勢力的支持,在中國引起強烈反感,這使得南京大屠殺成為嚴重影響中日關係的主要歷史問題之一。

日本在結束前所發起的各起戰事讓中國蒙受了巨大經濟財產和生命損失。日本政府在1972年中日邦交正常化談判時,明確表示痛感過去由於戰爭給中國人民造成的重大責任並對此深刻反省。在此前提下,中國政府決定放棄對日本的戰爭賠償要求,並載入1972年中日兩國簽署的《中日聯合聲明》。 1978年,中華人民共和國五屆全國人大常委會第三次會議批准的《中日和平友好條約》再次以法律文件的形式確認了放棄對日戰爭賠償要求的決定。但很多人認為,雖然中國政府放棄了政府間的戰爭賠償,但不包括民間賠償問題,因而民間的受害者仍有權利向日本政府及有關企業提出民事賠償的請求,如針對和強制勞工的賠償。在近代史上,日軍是唯一有隨軍妓女的軍隊,有關針對慰安婦的賠償問題近些年來也顯得較為突出。

在第二次世界大戰期間,日軍公然違反國際公約,使用,造成大量中國軍民中毒傷亡。日軍戰敗時為掩蓋罪行,毀滅證據,將大量化武就近掩埋、遺棄。到近年,已經有十多個中國的省市自治區,三十多處發現了日本遺棄化武。由於這些遺棄化武已經過半個世紀的風雨侵蝕,鏽蝕嚴重,有的已發生泄漏,對各地人民的生命財產安全和生態環境等造成了嚴重危害。為解決此問題,自1989年至今,中日已舉行了最少4次政府談判及4次專家磋商。1997年,雙方成立聯合工作組,並舉行了4次工作組會議。在中國推動下,日本對遺棄在華化武進行了15次現場調查。日本由最初不承認這些武器屬日軍留下,到最後承認武器屬日軍所留下。1999年7月30日,中日兩國政府簽署《中華人民共和國政府和日本國政府關於銷毀中國境內日本遺棄化學武器的備忘錄》,日本承諾將根據《中日聯合聲明》、《中日和平友好條約》、《》的原則精神及《備忘錄》的有關規定儘快解決這一問題.

其他戰略分歧[]

第二次世界大戰結束後日美就建立了軍事同盟,並且以的形式確定下來,並在近年不斷增加軍事預算,對此,中國認為日美的防衛對象是中國,並提出抗議;同時,也以不斷加入軍費投入予以回應。

第二次世界大戰結束後的日本,經濟實力僅次於美國,但是由於日本是二戰戰敗國,在政治上卻受到了諸多限制。如日本的憲法規定,日本只能,不能擁有軍隊。於是在日本國內有了修改憲法的聲音,prada iPhone 5 Cases,並想借成為提高國際影響力,成為「正常國家」。因為歷史問題,日本修憲和爭常均遭到中國及其他一些地區民眾的強烈反對。

關於中國國防開支連續18年以兩位數增長一事,強調「繼續注意中國國防費的增額和軍事現代化仍有不透明的部分」,日本將「要求中國國防開支更加透明化」。中國則對日本迴避談及其自身軍事投入不斷提高,以及武器裝備不斷提升倭亢蛿盗浚约安粩嘀求以「維和」等名義派兵海外予以批評。

其他敏感問題[]

在中日邦交正常化的時候,中華人民共和國同中華民國政府一樣,免除了日本明治維新後至第二次世界大戰前各起戰事的官方戰爭賠償,對此日本政經界人士深表感激。而同時中國的發展需要日本的資金、技術,於是中日政府雙方達成默契,以日本政府發展援助的形式在某種程度上彌補中國放棄戰爭賠償的經濟損失。

日本對華援助是項目的一部分。日本對華日元貸款始於1979年。截至2006年6月,日本政府已累計向中國承諾提供日元貸款協議金額約32078.54內赵渺 42個項目的建設。截至2006年5月底,中國實際使用日元貸款約23864.13內赵 sup id="cite_ref-zhgcdxww_30-25" class="reference">截至2005年,中國共接受日本無償援助累計1376內赵s合12.5兠涝渺 36個項目的建設,涉及環保、教育、扶貧、醫療等領域。長期以來,日本一直是中國的最大援助國,如之興建便由日本政府提供三百內赵脑S伸吨袊洕目焖侔l展加之日本政府強烈懷疑中國政府將日本的援助使用於擴充軍備等非和平用途,日本政府正逐年減少對華援助,轉而援助。 2006年3月23日日本政府宣布凍結新財政年度的對華日元貸款計劃。

目前中國留學生佔在日留學生總數八成以上。日本規定,在讀留學生不得因任何目的參加有薪工作。然而,為了維持在日開銷及讀書費用常有學生冒著被學校除名的風險打工。其中也有部分留學生假借讀書為名,而以打工賺錢為本業。日本也確實存在一些專以協助留學生獲得學生簽證並謀取高額學費的「」。為此,有些受騙的中國學生與學校發生衝突和爭執,學校或以不予協助緒期簽證威脅,中國留學生則以不辭而別及不繳納學費作為回應,並釀成了轟動日本的「酒田短期大學倒閉事件」。也有一些中國留學生加入日本的犯罪集團,或自組幫派,依地域稱為福建幫、柋睅汀⑸虾汀V枎偷龋劤伞父袊魧W生殺人事件」等犯罪事件。因此日本核發留學簽證的條件就變得嚴苛,以期對此不良結果予以限制。在日本國內經濟長期不景氣引發的排外情緒及興起的影響下,日本民眾對中國的態度由中日建交時的睦鄰親善,轉變成對中國人抱持觀望或不歡迎態度。

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